GAD antibodies: a critical review of evidence on their pathogenicity and recommendations for assessing their association with a neurological syndrome

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Abstract

Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been associated with several neurological syndromes, including stiff-person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and epilepsy. These antibodies were first described in 1988, but several controversies about GAD autoimmunity still remain. No criteria exist to establish when a neurological syndrome is pathogenically linked to GAD antibodies, often leading to the assumption that any syndrome in which these antibodies are present is immune mediated, sometimes resulting in misdiagnosis and unnecessary treatment.

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